Systems and Integration
Systems are never fully capable of integration.
Everyone who knows life (actually) knows that: Life also consists of ups and downs and unexpected dangers! These are called disruptive changes in current management slang. Integration means that a system calculates the uncertainties of the external and internal environment in such a way that a continuous, controllable process is created. Without such a performance the system would be too unstable and too fragile. If, instead, it tried to control everything it would:
try something impossible (Who or what could know everything?),
overburden itself in this attempt (who or what could process all that information?) and would have too little resources left to robustly adapt to the unexpected.
Therefore, systems must do both, create security and tolerate insecurity, accomplish integration and permit sufficient disintegration. A complete mastery of uncertainty (planning, recipes, manuals) would create the illusion that the world is homogenous. The individual case is overridden in the statistics and in the world of balancing out differentials.
Particularly for consultancy, which is often called upon where there are undesired and unexpected conditions, it is important to understand something about disintegration, the individual case and the non-calculable.