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Planning is one of the chief activities in organisations. It is normal and ever present. It usually occupies itself with the present future, i.e. with the attempt to shape the future as one would like it (today). The future present, i.e. that, which really happens tomorrow and the day after, appears in planning as a disturbance, something unhoped for, undesired. In the best case, one also has a plan B, if plan A does not materialise.

Planning has some important implications:

• The competence to choose a fitting goal exists.

• The future is shapeable (or controllable) through actions.

• There is sufficient information to enable appropriate planning.

• The competences for the implementation of the plan exist or can be delivered, and are also utilised.

• The influences which affect the plan, are known and controllable.

• All, who are required for the plan, agree to it and fulfil the role which has been foreseen for them.

• Deviations from the plan are noticed and can be rectified.

None of these implications is trivial. Therefore, planning is an extremely disturbance-prone way of dealing with the future. Without planning, organisations cannot exist. This is why so much depends on the form of planning and other possible direction alternatives.