You are here: Start


In order to work upon goals, one must have influence over the result and the manner in which it is achieved. It is very helpful, as per Luhmann, to distinguish between three forms of influence:

• Authority: If one has factual expertise and this competence is recognised by others, then one can exercise influence within the factual dimension of the goal processing. Others do something, because they assume that it will lead to good results if they follow the advice of the ‘expert’.
• Leadership: If someone tells another what they should do, and they then do this, because they have observed that others take notice of what this person says, then that one person has ‘leadership’ in the group. Leadership, therefore, functions by the fact that in the manner and method of the leader there is something which motivates others to follow him.
• Power: If someone is in the position to dictate the future of others to a large degree, then that person has power, in as much as the others wish to have the expected consequences (reward) or they fear them (punishment).

In teams and organisations, all types of influence are used. For the examination and reflection upon goal processing in teams, the engagement with all three types of influence is necessary.