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Guilt must be strictly differentiated from responsibility. I have responsibility when I experience myself as the actor and not as the affected. Then I can and will be able to deal with the effects of my behaviour. Responsibility, therefore, makes me free, because I chose how I see the world, what and to whom I give which meaning and how I wish to feel. The person feels guilt if he does not recognise his responsibility and instead constantly passes judgment upon himself.

Every self-judgment, which must be strictly distinguished from regretting something, leads to a restricted inner process, however. This, secondarily, leads to the attempt to get rid of the guilt (concealment, denial, reparation, counter attacks, breakdown etc.) and therefore it preserves the lack of personal responsibility.

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