How is effectiveness created? The concepts, which were developed for this, differ fundamentally, * you can rely on the individual (hero) or structures (laws), * you can rely on will (influence) or development (create favourable conditions), * you can rely on pro-active intervention (activity) or on using opportunities (waiting), * you can rely on direct pursuit of a goal (goal strategy) or on indirect influencing of a situation (potential strategy), * you can rely on the good (integrity) or the bad (cunning), * you can rely on competition (winning) or on cooperation (dialogue), * you can rely on current risks (investments) or on future danger (accumulation of capital), … The list could be continued. These different concepts imply very diverse assumptions about the world, nature, the person and the society. Effectiveness ideas are linked to theoretical distinctions and to philosophical settings. In organisational contexts managers, as well as consultants, wish to effect change. Therefore, the choice of strategy and means, which will fit the situation, but also the reflection of their implicit assumptions, acquire high significance, or even court controversy. Cultural differences are also often distinguishable by different ideas and models about effectiveness, as well as their evaluation and reputation.