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Resonance is to be differentiated from causality in theory. In causal contexts, a cause produces an unambiguous, specific effect. If one can eliminate ‘disturbing influences’, this effect is repeatable and independent of context. Resonance, on the other hand, decides for ‘itself’ if, how and when it will react or not. The ball which you kick flies, whether you want it to or not. The dog you step on will respond differently, according to …! Therefore, the ‘effect’ is neither calculable, nor controllable, neither foreseeable, nor repeatable from the outside. It is over-determined, for example, by the inner life of the dog (satiated or hungry, cowardly or courageous, tired or awake), by the relationship between the dog and the ‘stepper’ (owner or stranger) and by the context (dog is larger or smaller than the ‘stepper’). The same applies to people, teams and organisations. Everything that happens depends upon so many factors, that control and cause and effect thinking are not helpful, functional, theoretical constructs.

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