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Learning is not good in itself. Under certain conditions it can also be very bad. What is important is to decide consciously whether one learns or continues as before. Paradoxically, learning consists of learning and not learning. This is why it is so important not to opt one-sidedly for learning (learning organisation!) but to also have competences to ignore the new and different and to continue with the familiar and proven.

The art of reflection about whether there is, at the moment, a need for change or stabilisation, is required by every system, psyche, team and organisation. The more complex, or rich in surprises, the environments become, the more frequently this need for reflection arises. It can, accordingly, be useful if routines are introduced, which ensure that one does not continue as before in the system without reflection or simply take on something new, which does not really fit. Such reflection routines are characterised by the fact that the inner and outer perspectives are mixed. Every system would do well to equip itself for learning/non-learning from the perspective of the environment. This can be that of the competition, the customer, expert or consultant. Those, who only swim in their own pool, will find it harder to find criteria for establishing whether the old is still good or whether the new would be better. Those, who only pounce on everything new, will not adapt and thus weaken or lose their own identity.