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Exceptions and Hierarchy

One of the most important functions which hierarchies have (can have) in organisations, is to permit exceptions. If the respective hierarchy situationally suspends a regulation, (usually) this does not impair the regulation. At the same time, (usually) enough influence exists to procure the abandonment of the regulated behaviour. In organisations with no, or little hierarchy this either leads to the overload of the existing hierarchical positions (everyone is running to the owner!) or it needs substitutes (informal leaders, councils, crisis committees, special powers etc.).

No matter how, an organisation requires a function which enables it to decide about exceptions, so that only the situation is affected and precedents are not too quickly created, which would lead to permanent disputes about the validity of the regulation.